1651-1660 - AND ELSEWHERE WORLDWIDE

HISTORY: English Navigation Act gives English ships monopoly of foreign trade; Louis XIV reestablishes lawful government, recalling Mazarin; Maine is joined to Massachusetts Bay Colony; Oliver Cromwell becomes Lord Protector; Coronation of Louis XIV at Rheims; Portuguese finally drive Dutch out of Brazil; English capture Jamaica; Charles X of Sweden invades Poland, takes Warsaw and Cracow; Parliament invites Charles II to return to England; Louis XIV of France marries Maria Teresa, Infanta of Spain.

ARTS: The minuet comes into fashion at French court; Spinoza excommunicated.

SCIENCE/GROWTH: Izaak Walton: "The Complete Angler"; Dutch scientist Christiann Huygens designs first pendulum for clocks; First stockings and fountain pens manufactured in Paris; Robert Hooke invents the balance spring for watches; Dutch peasants (Boers) settle in South Africa; Water closets arrive from France in England.